What is Number Systems - Introduction | Bits and Bytes | brieflynotes

What is Number Systems


There square measure many types of knowledge like, numeric, text, date, graphics, image, audio and video that required to be method to by a PC. The text sometimes include commonplace alphabetic, numeric, and special characters. The graphics knowledge include still footage footage drawing and pictures. Any kind of sound together with music and voice, is taken into account as audio knowledge. Video knowledge consists of motion footage. {the knowledge|the info|the information} should be born-again into to a format that the PC data are often classified into 2 forms, analog knowledge and digital knowledge. Analogue knowledge will have any price at intervals an outlined vary and it's continuous. Sound waves, phonephone signals, temperatures and every one alternative signals that don't seem to be broken into bits square measure samples of analogue knowledge. Digital knowledge are often diagrammatically by a series of binary numbers and it's separate.

The arithmetic and logic unit (ALU) of the PC performs arithmetic and logical operations on knowledge. PC arithmetic is usually performed on 2 differing types of numbers, number and floating purpose. because the hardware needed for arithmetic is far less complicated for integers than floating purpose numbers, this 2 varieties have entirely totally different representations. Associate in Nursing variety|number} could be a number and therefore the floating purpose number features a divisional half. to know regarding however computers store knowledge within the memory and the way they handle them one should realize bits and bytes and therefore the variety systems.

Bits and bytes or common PC jargon. each the most memory (Random access memory or RAM) and therefore the disc capacities square measure measured in terms of bytes. The disc and memory capability of a PC and alternative specifications or delineate in terms of bits and bytes. as an example, PC American state be delineate as having a thirty two bit Pentium processor with 128 megabytes of RAM and fixed disk capability of forty gigabytes.

Bits and Bytes

A listing system could be a means of representing numbers. the foremost ordinarily used listing system is that the decimal numeration system. PC systems will perform computations and transmit knowledge representations. it's necessary for each one finding out computers to grasp however the binary systems and hexadecimal number system work. a touch is little piece of information that's derived from the words "Binary Digit". Bits have solely 2 attainable values, 0 and 1. A binary variety contains a sequence of 0's and 1's like 10111. a set of nine bits is termed as a computer memory unit. With eight bits in a very computer memory unit, we are able to represent 256 values starting from zero to 255 as shown below.

0=0000 0000
1=0000 0001
2=0000 0010
3=0000 0011 
254=1111 1110
255=1111 111

Bytes square measure wont to represent characters in a very text. differing types of committal to writing schemes square measure wont to represent the list and numbers. the foremost ordinarily used committal to writing theme is that the  common place Code for data interchange (ASCII). every binary price between zero and 127 is employed to represent a particular character. The computer code price for your blank character is thirty two and therefore the computer code price of numeric zero is forty eight. The vary of computer code values for minuscule alphabets is from ninety seven to 122 vary of computer code values for the capital letter alphabets is sixty five to ninety. store is often diagrammatic in terms of kilobytes or megabytes. In system of weights and measures, one kilogram represents a thousand, that's 103. In positional notation, one kilogram computer memory unit represents 1024 bytes, that is, 210. the subsequent table shows the illustration of assorted memory sizes.

                 (Read as 2 power 10)

In a 2GB (Giga bytes) device (hard disk), totally 21,47,483,648 bytes are often hold on. Nowadays, databases having size in Terabytes square measure re portable. Zetta and Yotta size databases square measure nonetheless to come back.

Decimal number system

In our standard of living, we have a tendency to use system supported digits to represent numbers. the system that uses the decimal numbers or digits symbols zero to nine is termed as decimal numeration system. The system is alleged to possess a base, or radii, of ten. sequence of digits image square measure wont to represent numbers bigger than nine. once variety is written a sequence of decimal digits, its price are often understood mistreatment the point price of every digit within the variety. The point numeration system could be a system of writing numbers wherever the worth of a digit depends not solely on the digit, however additionally on a it's placement at intervals variety. within the point numeration system, every digit is weighted relative to its position within the variety. this suggests that every digit within the variety is increased by 10 raised to an influence such as that digits position. so the worth of the decimal sequence 948 is

94810=9 X 102 + four X one zero one + eight X one hundred

Fractional values square measure diagrammatically within the same manner, however exponents square measure negative for digits on the proper aspect of the mathematical notation. so the worth of the divisional decimal sequence 948.23 is

  948.2310=9 X 102 + four X one zero one + eight X one hundred + two X 10-1 + three X 10-2

In general, for the decimal illustration of

X =  the worth of X is

X= Si x 10i wherever i= ...... 2, 1, 0, -1, -2, ......